Bourland in North Texas and Indian Territory During the Civil War: Fort Cobb, Fort Arbuckle & the Wichita Mountains

       Reviews                                               by Patricia Adkins-Rochette                                                Home

 

Featured in Volumes I. and II.

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Bourland Papers: over 200 Civil War era documents transcribed and put into a time line of James Bourland's (1801-1879) life, including 43 letters to and from Brig-Gen. H.E. McCulloch that should be in the Official Record, but are not.  In order to augment and interpret these 200 hard-to-read documents, it was necessary to transcribe the 240 militia listings and the correspondence of the seven militia brigades of North Texas.

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Brush Battalion.  Most were deserters and draft-dodgers, who hid in the thickets and creek bottoms of north Texas but some were just innocent conscripts.   They were offered amnesty if they would enroll in the Confederate Army -- 480 enlisted and were stationed at Oxford Lake, Collin County, TX.   We are trying to locate the minutes of a meeting of the Confederate Brush Battalion (my term) on December 12, 1863 in Bonham, Fannin County TX.  (30 pp)

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Whitebead, Garvin County, OK was probably where an Aug 26, 1842 treaty was signed that was initiated by Caddo Chief Red Bear #1 (d-1846) in a letter to R.M. Jones.  Attendees of this meeting were representatives of the Buloxies, Caddos, Ionies and Nadarkos plus 11 Texas Commissioners led by Robert McDonald Jones:  James Bourland, James A. Caldwell, Holland Coffee, Joseph Durst, James Gamble, W.R. Gray, Slone Love, F.R. Lubbock, Thomas Ingles Smith, Ethan Stroud, and Leonard Williams.  Moreover, Caddo Red Bear #1 signed the Sept 29, 1843 Bird's Fort Treaty that was signed by 15 representatives of 10 tribes and Sam Houston plus other Texans, near now Arlington, Tarrant Co, Texas.   (2 pp)

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Battle of Village Creek in 1841, near now Arlington, Texas, including a listing of the 78 members of Bourland's Ranging Company.  (14 pp)

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1846 Bounty Hunt on Pennington Creek, I.T.  Murder and counterfeiting suspect,  Alonzo Pennington of Christian County, Kentucky, was hiding on what was later known as Pennington Creek, Chickasaw District, Choctaw-Chickasaw Nation, now Tishomingo, Johnston County, Oklahoma when he was captured by Reuben Bourland of Doaksville, I.T. and Dr. Reece Bourland of Ballard County, Kentucky.  Pennington was shackled, escorted back to Kentucky where he stood trial, was found guilty, and was hanged in the first legal hanging in Christian County. This posted reward, trial, and hanging made national news for months, analogous to the 1932 Lindbergh kidnapping.  Dr. Bourland collected a $1,000 bounty.   (19 pp)

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Comanche and Kiowa Raids into Texas from Indian Territory.   Includes contemporaneous accounts of 1863, 1864, 1866, and 1868 events.  (16 pp)

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Battle of Elm Creek, Young County, Texas, Oct. 13, 1864, in which Comanche Buffalo Hump's and Kiowa Satanka's men raided the Elm Creek area killing five men of Bourland's Regt.  Included is Major J.B. "Buck" Barry's version of events;  Negro Britt Johnson's search for his captured family and friends: (Jube Johnson, Cherry Johnson, Mary Johnson, John Johnson and Charlotta 'Lottie' Durkin/ Durgan Barker); details of Elizabeth Ann (Bishop) Carter Sprague FitzPatrick Clifton's life in captivity at Fort Zarah and at the Kansa Kaw Indian Agency Mission in Council Grove, Kansas.    (14 pp).

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Quantrill and his Raiders, including Jesse James, Frank James, and Cole Younger.  (23 pp, 5 of the 23 pp address a timeline of Quantrill in North Texas and the men who rode with him).

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Gunfight in Jack County, Texas.  Capt. James S. Moore’s Company was accused of getting into a gunfight on September 3, 1864 with deserters who were living amidst civilians near A.H. Hancock's home. Unionists mentioned were: Charles Adare, Ezra Cole, E. Brawner, and T.W. Williams.  Confederate Capt. Moore’s men were: (P.P. or J.) Brown, Alexander Coker, T. R. Simpson and D. S. Howell.  (3 pp)

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107 Prisoners in Wise County TX: deserters of Gen. Stand Watie's, Col. W.B. Sims 9th Infantry, Col. C.L. DeMorse's 29th Cavalry, plus abut 10 other regiments, were arrested in April 1865.  Coincidentally 150 recently stolen horses were recovered.   (5 pp)

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300,000 Cattle Stolen or levied from the residents of Indian Territory during the Civil War to feed Union and Confederate armies in the East caused massive destitution and near starvation.  Between April 1865 and August 1867, 4,000 horses and 31,000 cattle were stolen from North Texas.  (3 pp)

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Cherokee Town, near now Pauls Valley, Garvin County OK1839 until 1907, settled by Cherokee Ridgeites from now Cherokee County, Texas.  (3 pp)

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Tonkawa Massacre  and the Raid of the Wichita Agency, now the Anadarko OK area.  (5 pp)

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Camp Napoleon Compact of May 26, 1865 in now Verden, Grady County, OK which was a meeting of 5,000 to 7,000 Indians representing 20 Plains and slave-owning tribes plus Gen. J.W. Throckmorton and 500 Texas State Troops.  This meeting was originally scheduled to meet at Elm Springs, now Erin Springs, near now Lindsay, Garvin County OK.  (2 pp)

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Maps. (56 maps, 28 of Indian Territory)

 

240 Militia Listings of 7 militia brigades of North Texas during the 1861-1865 era, comprised of the records of 34 North Texas counties.  (227 pages transcribed from the original records of 34 counties)

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.5 Militia Listings of pre-1861 in North Texas: i.e., 1838, 1842, 1845, 1858, and 1859 commanded by Capt. Samuel Wilson, Capt. William Edmondson, Col. Bourland, Capt. Jesse Stiff, and Lt. John  McGarrah.  (7 pp)

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Brigade Correspondence of the seven North Texas Militia Brigades is a significant resource for the study of Indian Territory during the Civil War era.  (90 pp transcribed from the original records of 34 counties)

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Brush Battalion, a listing of 480 men enlisted in the Confederate Army, referred to in this study as the Confederate Brush Battalion (my term)  (4 pp, a listing).

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Rush Creek Treaty signed on Aug. 21, 1858 in a Wichita Village on Rush Creek, 5 miles southeast of now Rush Springs, Grady County, OK by Comanche Chief Buffalo Hump, Wichita Chief  Isadowa (aka Assadwa or Esadewar), and Lt. James Edwin Powell of Fort Arbuckle only to have the treaty  broken on Sept. 30, 1858 when Capt. Earl Van Dorn's U.S. Cavalry attack the Comanches at the Wichita Village.   Death toll was 75.  (2 pp)

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Brig-General Stand Watie’s 1st Cherokee Regt was attached to Colonel Bourland's Regt. (8 pp, a listing).

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Lt-Colonel John Jumper’s Seminole Regt. was attached to Colonel Bourland's Regt.  (8 pp, a listing).

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Fort Cobb, articles about post commanders Capt. J.J. Diamond and Lt-Col. Joseph D. Harris.  Maybe Lt-Col. M. Shecoe was also a post commander. (28 pp)

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Fort Arbuckle, includes articles about most of the post commanders including Capt. W. R. Elliott, Capt. W.H. Hooks, Lt-Col. J.R. Diamond, Capt. L.G. Harmon, Capt. A.J. Nicholson, Lt-Col. R.W. Lee, and Lt. A.B. White.  (48 pp of Civil War era records)

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Confederate Treaties in Indian Territory, including the complete text of the Aug. 12, 1861 treaty with the friendly Plains Indians plus the 1861 treaty signatories for the Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Seminole tribes of Indian Territory.  (8 pp)

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Bourland's Border Regiment Cavalry, transcription of the Confederate records from the National Archives, 850 soldiers.   (23 pp)

 

Additional soldiers of Bourland's Regt. not mentioned in the archival records.   Your editor thinks about 50 will be found.  Thus far, 28 have been identified. 

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Military Posts and Hideouts in Indian Territory.  (180 entries in 10 pp)

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Organization Charts of the Texas State Troops and the Confederate Troops of Indian Territory and North Texas.  (8 pp)

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Indictment of Bourland in a scurrilous Oct. 15, 1864 document found in the Quayle Papers that smeared Bourland in a bill-of-particulars for a proposed court martial -- never mind that it was never filed in a court: neither a military, a civil, nor a criminal court.  Careless historians have stated that 5 of Bourland's captains signed this document, which is not true since all 8 pages, including the 28 signatures, are in the same handwriting.  By Nov. 1, 1864, Major Wm. Quayle had left his Texas State Troops post in Wise County for the legislature in Austin.  Subsequently, Bourland represented the North Texas Sub-District in the Jun 2, 1865 Confederate surrender in Galveston, Texas.  (4 pp).

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Buffalo Soldiers.  The original Buffalo Soldiers were at Fort Arbuckle, Pickens County, Chickasaw Nation as part of the 10th U.S. Cavalry organized in August 1866 in Fort Scott, Kansas .  It is assumed that the Plains Indians named the Negro soldiers "Buffalo Soldiers" because of the similarity between the hair of the Negro and that of the buffalo, a sacred animal to the Plains Indians who assigned that name out of respect. The Negro soldier accepted this title and wore it proudly.  Freedmen communities near Fort Arbuckle were Tatums and Fox in now Carter County as well as Hennepin and the Roady Baptist Church in now Garvin County, OK..   (3 pp)

 

.Tonkawa Massacre Assailants and Survivors near the Wichita Agency, now Anadarko, Caddo  County, OK area.  (8 pp plus 3 maps)

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Patricia Adkins-Rochette        03/20/2013           prochette@Juno.com

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